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For an easier comprehension of the concepts more used on this page, here there is a minimal glossary, including only the terms related to the project management.
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  [all]
Activity The essential element for planning, control and measuring the performances of a project. Activities must have approx. 80 hours and it must not be longer than 2-4 weeks. Activities must be complete and well documented.
Aim of the project The finality of a project, in terms of a general intention, which gives a measure of the ideal results of the project.
Authority The right of manager to take decisions and to ask his subordinates to apply them.
Control Permanent or periodical analysis of an activity or situation, for monitoring its progress and for taking the decisions suitable for minimizing adverse variances.The prerequisite for project control is to comply with the criteria for self-control. These criteria are:- Each project team member should know what it is expected from him to do and how.- Each project team member should have the means of assessing if what he is doing complies with what he is supposed to do.- Each project team member should have the means of taking the necessary decisions so as to minimize the risk of not fulfilling the specifications (process corrections).Additionally, control means accomplishment of the following steps:- Process monitoring and performance measurement, against previously accepted criteria- Comparing and evaluation of the variation between the desirable and the real results- Taking a corrective action when the variance is above normal limits. Corrective action means either the recalculation of objectives (if the performance exceeds the expectations), or the improvement of the performance (if it is less than the expectations).
Effectiveness The degree of accomplishment of the organisational objectives previously established.
Efficiency The degree in which the organisation uses its resources to achieve the established objectives.
Eligibility The ability of an organisation / project proposal /activity to comply with the criteria defined by the funding organisation.
Eligible costs The costs that must fulfill the following conditions- be necessary for carrying out the project, be provided for in the Contract and comply with the principles of sound financial management, in particular value for money and cost?effectiveness- have been incurred during the duration of execution of the project and following the signature of the contract- have actually been incurred, be recorded in the Beneficiary?s or Beneficiary?s partners accounts, be identifiable and verifiable, and be backed by originals of supporting evidence.
Final actual project budget The real budget, concluded after the contract achievement and the objectives attainment; it is build on the basis of the actual, effective and justifiable expenses made during the activities performed during the project implementation.
Grant A direct non- commercial payment, made by a funding entity (the European Commission, for example), in order to promote own interests.
Indicators Targets set for measuring the level of achievement of the project objectives. Indicators should be clear defined, measurable, enabling the project monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, indicators characteristics are:- visibility (easy identifiable and suitable for direct observation)- adequacy (evident relation with the measures objective)- measurability (the qualitative indicators should be easy evaluated and the quantitative ones should have a value enabling to assess the level of performance)- relevance (the indicator should refer to the intrinsic project performances, not to the side effects, determined by factors not controlled by the project).
Initiating organisation The organisation that decides to undertake the project and assigns the task to implement the project to the project organisation.
Management The formal process of the administration of an organisation (or of a part of organisation) by coordinating the activities performed by persons or groups of persons, in view of meeting the organisation objectives.
Methods (tactics, activities, implementation plan): the means through which the project objectives are achieved. Their elements are: targets, resources, responsibilities, periods of time.
Mission A clear formulation of the organisation role, which serves like a guide for taking strategic decisions.
Monitoring A continuous observation of the project implementation processes in connection with a monitoring timetable including the project performance indicators.
Open tender The tender organized for small and medium complexity services/works/goods, in just one stage. The number of tenderers is not limited, if they comply with the Terms of Reference.
Organisation A collection of human and non-human resources supervised for reaching the predetermined objectives; it has like constituent elements the following: aims, structures and interactions.
Partner Somebody who shares something with somebody else (Webster).
Power The concrete possibility of a manager to influence and control the behaviour of his subordinates.
Problem / the project necessity A description of the present situation, a particular need of the society, which affects some groups or situations, in a particular place for a certain period of time.
Problem solving The process of finding the causes and the actions necessary for the cause elimination.
Process A dynamic set of inter-related resources and activities that transform inputs into outputs. Process management involves:- detailed and overall planning- selection and use of proper tools for process deployment- taking necessary decision to assure that the process produces the desired effects- coordination of activities and resources during the process- process deployment evaluation and control.
Project An unique process, consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with clear start and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the constraints of time, cost and resources.
Project application The document supporting a funding request, to be used in a specific way, on a limited period of time, for the attainment of certain objectives that would satisfy some clear specified needs, and the accomplishment of clear identifiable results.The application should contain at least the following elements:- the project resume- a presentation of the promoting organisation- the aim of the project- the justification of the project- the objectives of the project- the method / activities planned- the success evaluation measures- the project budget- the sustainability of the project- attachments
Project assessment The process of establishing the effectiveness and the efficiency of the project.
Project budget Estimated budget in the planning phase, included as an annex to the funding contract, after evaluation and funding of a project proposal.
Project general objective The global orientation to which attainment the project should contribute.
Project immediate (specific) objective The positive impact of the project on the beneficiary.
Project management A dynamic process, conducted against a defined set of constraints that organizes and utilizes appropriate resources in a controlled and structured manner in order to achieve some clearly defined objectives.Project management includes the planning, organizing, monitoring and controlling of all aspects of a project in a continuous process to achieve its objectives.
Project Objective An imaginary, forthcoming situation, consciously selected and desirable, achievable through a set of activities.
Project Objectives Statements of the desired situation to be attained at the end of the project.The project objectives should be defined to meet the agreed requirements and, if necessary, refined during the course of the project. They should describe what is to be accomplished, be expressed in terms of time, product characteristics, and, where possible, be measurable. Some of the project objectives characteristics:- significance ? easiness in identification- pertinence ? adequacy to the project situation- opportunity ? adequacy to the project duration- feasibility ? adequacy to the actual possibilities of the project promoter- measurability ? easiness of evaluation by using qualitative and quantitative tools
Project organisation The organisation that carries out the project in the name of the initiating organisation.The project organisation may be a part of the initiating organisation, a consortium, another organisation, etc.
Project outcomes Effects resulting from an action, a fact, a judgement: consequences, impacts, effects.
Project outputs Tangible products and / or services provided to the project target groups (defined outputs in the project and provided to the project beneficiary).
Project plan A document setting out what it is required to meet the objective(s) of the project.
Project planning The process of selecting the objectives and setting the policies, procedures and programmes necessary for meeting the meeting the stated objectives.Planning could be described as the activity of setting a sequence of predetermined actions in the frame of a specific environment.
Project proposal evaluation The process of assessing the ability of the project to contribute to the achievement of the programme priorities and to attain own objectives in the budgetary limits and the time constraints.
Project team Two or more persons working together in order to achieve common objectives. The team members should not be employees of the same organisation, nor should they meet or work together everyday.
Restricted tender Tender procedure used in the case of large contracts, of major importance. It consists in two phases:- preparing a short list of some selected entities, from the ones that have expressed their intention to take part in the tender, according to their technical capability to match the contract requirement- sending an invitation to tender to the short-listed candidates and selection of the winning offer
Stakeholder An individual or a group of individuals with a common interest in the performances of the promoter organisation or in the environment in which the organisation operates.Note: Stakeholders may include:- the client, the beneficiary or the user of the project product- the project owner - the organisation originating or implementing the project- the partner, in the case of projects run by a partnership- the funding entity, for example the Contracting Authority- the subcontractor supplying a product or a service required for project implementation- the society (legislative or regulatory bodies, the society - as a whole)- the internal personnel, namely the employees of the project promoting organisation
Team A formal group build in order to solve a particular organisational task, acting as a whole, under the management of a team manager.Team features:- common goal, clear strategies, well defined roles- empowerness, self-trusting in own abilities- open relations, active listening, empathy, two-way communication- flexibility, adaptability, creativity.
Tender Selection process of a provider, complying with special rules, resulting in awarding the contract to the supplier that has the best offer and that has fulfilled with the criteria set in the Terms of Reference of the tender.
Tender invitation The documentation sent to potential tenderers participating to a restricted tender.


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